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By Avcibas, Memon, Sankur, Sayood

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In Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, and Venezuela, however, the elections are held on different days. The degree of interrelation varies. There are three different degrees of simultaneity: It is low when the elections are simply held on the same day; it is moderate when there is a single ballot paper for presidential and parliamentary elections; it is high when both president and parliament are elected with the same vote. Table 6 gives an overview of the interrelation.

There are different approaches besides the numerous contingent considerations, and these approaches are closely related to the three basic functions and the priorities expressed with regard to them. We will return to the function of legitimacy later. The degree of proportionality in a system can be measured by looking at the difference in percentage points between the share of the votes and the share of seats a party receives. Disproportionality is low when the difference does not exceed three percentage points.

The first elections of the 21st century in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela had proportional outcomes as the difference was lower than three percentage points. In Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua the difference did not exceed six percentage points, so these results can be qualified as slightly disproportional. According to this criteria, the electoral systems in these two groups of countries fulfill the function of representation. 2).

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