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Extra info for Air pollution and freshwater ecosystems : sampling, analysis, and quality assurance
2 STUDY DESIGN Water quality studies for evaluating aquatic effects of atmospheric deposition are most commonly designed as lake or stream characterization studies, synoptic surveys of the chronic chemistry of lakes or streams in a particular forest or region, characterization of episodic variations in chemistry in response to rainstorms or snowmelt, or long-term monitoring (LTM) studies to document and quantify changes in chemistry over time. Each type of design is described in the following material.
General assessment of lake or stream chemistry in an area, with identification of some of the more sensitive water bodies in the area Statistical or nonstatistical screening of a relatively large number of water bodies across the expected gradient of sensitivity, measuring specific conductance or pH in the field for making a rough assessment of condition, and collecting samples for full laboratory analyses for a subset of those samples. Estimate of seasonal or episodic variability in the chemistry of an acid-sensitive lake or stream Frequent interval sampling during the period of interest (typically snowmelt or during rainstorms).
For acidic and nutrient deposition monitoring, this is usually spring base flow for streams in the southeastern United States and is the summer or fall index period* for lakes or streams in regions that typically develop substantial snowpack. Typically, one sample, sometimes with replicates, is collected for each lake or stream that was selected for sampling. Synoptic surveys are ideally (but not always) statistically based, allowing extrapolation of sample results for individual water bodies to the regional population of interest.